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Missions to Mars

MISSION COUNTRY LAUNCH DATE PURPOSE RESULTS
[Unnamed] USSR 10/10/60 Mars flyby did not reach Earth orbit
[Unnamed] USSR 10/14/60 Mars flyby did not reach Earth orbit
[Unnamed] USSR 10/24/62 Mars flyby achieved Earth orbit only
Mars 1 USSR 11/1/62 Mars flyby radio failed at 65.9 million miles (106 million km)
[Unnamed] USSR 11/4/62 Mars flyby achieved Earth orbit only
Mariner 3 U.S. 11/5/64 Mars flyby shroud failed to jettison
Mariner 4 U.S. 11/28/64 first successful Mars flyby 7/14/65 returned 21 photos
Zond 2 USSR 11/30/64 Mars flyby passed Mars but radio failed, returned no planetary data
Mariner 6 U.S. 2/24/69 Mars flyby 7/31/69 returned 75 photos
Mariner 7 U.S. 3/27/69 Mars flyby 8/5/69 returned 126 photos
Mariner 8 U.S. 5/8/71 Mars orbiter failed during launch
Kosmos 419 USSR 5/10/71 Mars lander achieved Earth orbit only
Mars 2 USSR 5/19/71 Mars orbiter/lander arrived 11/27/71 no useful data, lander destroyed
Mars 3 USSR 5/28/71 Mars orbiter/lander, arrived 12/3/71 some data and few photos
Mariner 9 U.S. 5/30/71 Mars orbiter, in orbit 11/13/71 to 10/27/72 returned 7,329 photos
Mars 4 USSR 7/21/73 failed Mars orbiter flew past Mars 2/10/74
Mars 5 USSR 7/25/73 Mars orbiter, arrived 2/12/74 lasted a few days
Mars 6 USSR 8/5/73 Mars orbiter/lander, arrived 3/12/74 little data return
Mars 7 USSR 8/9/73 Mars orbiter/lander, arrived 3/9/74 little data return
Viking 1 U.S. 8/20/75 Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 6/19/76-1980, lander 7/20/76-1982 Combined, the Viking orbiters and landers returned 50,000+ photos
Viking 2 U.S. 9/9/75 Mars orbiter/lander, orbit 8/7/76-1987, lander 9/3/76-1980 combined, the Viking orbiters and landers returned 50,000+ photos
Phobos 1 USSR 7/7/88 Mars/Phobos orbiter/lander lost 8/88 en route to Mars
Phobos 2 USSR 7/12/88 Mars/Phobos orbiter/lander lost 3/89 near Phobos
Mars Observer U.S. 9/25/92 orbiter lost just before Mars arrival 8/21/93
Mars Global Surveyor U.S. 11/7/96 orbiter, arrived 9/12/97 currently conducting prime mission of science mapping
Mars 96 Russia 11/16/96 orbiter and landers launch vehicle failed
Mars Pathfinder U.S. 12/4/96 Mars lander and rover, landed 7/4/97 last transmission 9/27/97
Nozomi (Planet-B) Japan 7/4/98 Mars orbiter, currently in orbit around the Sun Mars arrival delayed to 12/03 due to propulsion problem
Mars Climate Orbiter U.S. 12/11/98 Orbiter lost on arrival at Mars 9/23/99
Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2 U.S. 1/3/99 lander/descent probes to explore Martian south pole lost on arrival 12/3/99
Mars Odyssey U.S. 4/7/01 Orbiter currently conducting prime mission of science mapping

Source: NASA

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